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Empiricism and Culture

If life, in the eye of the evolutionary biologist, is a game played by a planetary coalition of organisms in which Nature is the opponent, then the entirety of the rules of such a game — biosphere versus necrosphere — is contained in the theory of homeostasis.

Stanisław Lem

12 min

From a Cultural Nation to a Political Nation?

The title of this essay, intentionally flagged with a question mark, signifies the distinction itself is not entirely clear and that the real and desirable development of a nation does not proceed from one form to another.

Miłowit Kuniński

12 min

Freedom of Speech in Western Civilisation

The subject is difficult because it touches on the idea of freedom. And this idea in itself harbours antinomies that are not easy to resolve.

Bogusław Wolniewicz

10 min

The Shape of Polish Metaphysics

Before I answer the question of what I believe Polish spirituality to be, I must explain what I understand by spirituality.

Mirosław Dzielski

8 min

From the Genealogy of Life Ideals: Plato’s Ideal of a Philosopher

1. Both efforts to shape one’s character and educational interventions aimed at developing certain traits in young individuals while suppressing others often stem from a desire to bring oneself or others closer to a certain pattern or ideal of life.

Izydora Dąmbska

15 min

The Philosopher’s Vision on the Floe

Ladies and gentlemen, there are an infinite number of dimensions of configurational space in which one can place the point of view of what has been said so far.

Stanisław Lem

10 min

Ethical Grounds for Retribution and Compensation

No sooner was the city of Warsaw cleared of all ruins left after air strikes than the German authorities, in October 1939, started damaging and looting whatever remained of the cultural heritage from the city.

Władysław Tatarkiewicz

15 min

Archive of Polish thought